PHP7 on Pi 3 in the cloud (take 2)

March 24th, 2017 by

On Wednesday, we showed you how to get PHP7 up and running on one of our Pi 3 servers. Since then, we’ve implemented something that’s been on our to do list for a little while: OS selection. You can now have Ubuntu 16.04 and the click of a button, so getting up and running with PHP7 just got easier:

1. Get yourself a Pi 3 in our cloud.

2. Hit the “Reinstall” button:

3. Select Ubuntu 16.04:

4. Upload your SSH key (more details), turn the server on, SSH in and run:

apt-get install apache2 php7.0 php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-json \
    php7.0-mcrypt php7.0-mysql php7.0-opcache libapache2-mod-php7.0
echo "<?=phpinfo()? >" >/var/www/html/info.php

Browse to http://www.yourservername.hostedpi.com/info.php and you’re running PHP7:

PHP7 on a Raspberry Pi 3 in the cloud

March 22nd, 2017 by
Rasberry Pi 3

Two Raspberrys PI using PHP7 during the Pi 3 launch.

Last April we moved the main blog for Raspberry Pi to a small cluster of Raspberry Pi 3s. This went so well we made it commercially available and you can now buy your Raspberry Pi 3 in the cloud.

If you’d like to have PHP 7 running on your Raspberry Pi 3 in the cloud, this guide if for you. Click the link, buy a Pi 3 and install your ssh-key and log in. This should take no more than about a minute.

PHP 7 isn’t yet part of the standard Raspbian OS, so we need to get it from somewhere else.

A brief aside about CPU architectures, Raspbian and Debian

Debian provides three versions for ARM processors:

  • armel – 32 bit and ARMv5
  • armhf – 32 bit, ARMv7 and a floating point unit
  • arm64 – 64 bit ARMv8 and a floating point unit

The Raspberry Pi uses three different architectures:

  • Raspberry Pi A, B, Zero & Zero W – 32 bit ARMv6 with floating point
  • Raspberry Pi 2 – 32 bit ARMv7 with floating point
  • Raspberry Pi 3 – 32/64 bit ARMv8 with floating point unit

Raspbian is an unofficial port for 32bit ARMv6 and a floating point unit, which matches the hardware for an original Raspberry Pi model B. Because we’re working here with the Pi 3 – ARM8 and floating point, we can take official debian armhf packages and run them directly on our Pi 3.

Ondřej Surý is the Debian PHP maintainer who also has a private repository with newer versions of PHP built for Debian and Ubuntu. So we can use 32 bit Debian packages for ARM 7 (armhf) and install directly on top of Raspbian.

PHP 7 packages aren’t available for armel, so this won’t work on an original Raspberry Pi, or a Pi Zero/Zero W.

Add the PHP 7 repository

deb.sury.org includes newer PHP packages built for armhf, which we can use directly. Following the instructions here here we can set up the repository:

apt-get install apt-transport-https lsb-release ca-certificates
wget -O /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/php.gpg https://packages.sury.org/php/apt.gpg
echo "deb https://packages.sury.org/php/ $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/php.list
apt-get update

Now we can install everything we need for php7 and apache2.4:

apt-get install apache2 php7.0 php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-json \
    php7.0-mcrypt php7.0-mysql php7.0-opcache libapache2-mod-php7.0
echo "<?=phpinfo()?>" >/var/www/html/info.php 

Wait a few moments and we have a webserver running PHP7 on our Pi3 in the cloud.

You’ll note we’ve included php7-opcache. This should accelerate our PHP performance by a factor of two or so.

Now for an application…

Try WordPress

WordPress needs a MySQL server & PHP library for accessing MySQL. We need to restart Apache to make PHP 7 pick up the additional library.

apt-get install php7.0-mysql  mysql-server
apache2ctl restart
mysql -u root -p

mysql> create database wordpress;
mysql> grant all privileges on wordpress.* to wordpress identified by 'password';

We strongly recommend you invent a better password.

cd /var/www/html
wget https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
tar -zxvf latest.tar.gz
chown -R www-data:www-data wordpress

Then navigate to http://www.yourpiname.hostedpi.com/wordpress and finish the install through your browser.

Next steps

For information on how to host on your own domain name, and how to enable HTTPS see our previous blog post on hosting a website on a Raspberry Pi.

Hosting a website on an IPv6 Pi part 2: PROXY protocol

March 10th, 2017 by

In our previous post, we configured an SSL website on an IPv6-only Raspberry Pi server, using our IPv4 to IPv6 reverse proxy service.

The one problem with this is that our Pi would see HTTP and HTTPS requests coming from the proxy servers, rather than the actual clients requesting them.

Historically, the solution to this problem is to have the proxy add X-Forwarded-For headers to the HTTP request, but this only works if the request is unencrypted HTTP, or an HTTPS connection that is decrypted by the proxy. One of the nice features of our proxy is that it passes encrypted HTTPS straight to your server: we don’t need your private keys on the proxy server, and we can’t see or interfere with your traffic.

Of course, this means that we can’t add X-Forwarded-For headers to pass on the client IP address. Enter PROXY protocol. With this enabled, our proxies add an extra header before the HTTP or HTTPS request, with details of the real client. This is easy to enable in our control panel:

You also need to configure Apache to understand and make use of the PROXY protocol header. This is a little more involved, as the necessary module isn’t currently packaged as part of the standard Apache distribution (although this is changing), so we need to download and build it ourselves. First some extra packages are needed:

apt-get install apache2-dev git

This will install a good number of packages, and take a few minutes to complete. Once done, you can download, install and build mod_proxy_protocol

git clone https://github.com/roadrunner2/mod-proxy-protocol.git
cd mod-proxy-protocol
make

At this point you should just be able to type make install but at time of writing, there seems to be some problem with the packaging. So instead do this:

cp .libs/mod_proxy_protocol.so /usr/lib/apache2/modules/

Now you can load the module:

echo "LoadModule proxy_protocol_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_proxy_protocol.so" > /etc/apache2/mods-available/proxy_protocol.load
a2enmod proxy_protocol

You also need to configure Apache to use it. To do this, edit /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf and replace each line that contains CustomLog with the following two lines:

	ProxyProtocol On
	CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log "%a %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-agent}i\""

This tells Apache to use Proxy Protocol, and to use the supplied IP address in its log files. Now restart Apache:

systemctl reload apache2

Visit you website, and if all is working well, you should start seeing actual client IP addresses in the log file, /var/log/apache2/access_log:

93.93.130.44 - - [24/Feb/2017:20:13:25 +0000] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 10701 "-" "curl/7.26.0"

Trusting your log files

With the above configuration, we’ve told Apache to use the client IP address supplied by our proxy servers. What we haven’t done is told it that it can’t trust any random server that pitches up talking PROXY protocol. This means that it’s trivial to falsify IP addresses in our log files. To prevent this, let’s set up a firewall, so that only our proxy servers are allowed to connect on the HTTP and HTTPS ports. We use the iptables-persistent package to ensure that our firewall is configured when the server is rebooted.

apt-get install iptables-persistent

ip6tables -A INPUT -s proxy.mythic-beasts.com -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
ip6tables -A INPUT -s proxy.mythic-beasts.com -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
ip6tables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j REJECT
ip6tables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j REJECT

ip6tables-save

And we’re done! Our IPv6-only Raspberry Pi3 is now hosting an HTTPS website, and despite being behind a proxy server, we’re tracking real client IP addresses in our logs.

One-click SPF

March 9th, 2017 by

Sender Policy Framework (SPF) has been around for a while, but recently we’ve seen email providers getting much more active in using it to filter mail. Most notably, Gmail appearing to be flagging mail from all domains without an SPF record as untrusted.

In a nutshell, SPF allows you to publish a DNS record that declares a list of all of the mail servers that may legitimately send mail from your domain. It’s not perfect, but it’s a useful tool in reducing email with a forged sender address.

Getting SPF records right can be a bit tricky, but for domains hosted with Mythic Beasts that send mail exclusively via our mail servers, you can now add the correct SPF record with a single click.

One-click SPF enablement

The SPF settings are available on the domain pages in our control panel.

We’d love to make it even easier and just add the record for you, but we can’t be sure that customers are only using our mail servers to send mail, and if not, adding the record will make things worse, although we are planning to add this record by default for newly hosted domains.

It’s worth noting that SPF does not cause problems when sending mail via mailing lists as all decent mailing list software will use its own sender address rather than yours. You may be aware of a change made by Yahoo! that caused considerable problems for mailing lists, but this was related to another system, DMARC, which builds on top of SPF. SPF on its own works just fine with mailing lists.

Hosting a website on a Raspberry Pi with IPv6 and SSL (part 1)

March 2nd, 2017 by

Our hosted Raspberry Pi 3 servers make a great platform for learning how to run a server. They’re particularly interesting as they only have IPv6 connectivity, yet they can still be used very easily to host a website that’s visible to the whole Internet. This guide walks through the process of setting up a website on one of our hosted Pis, including hosting your own domain name, setting up an SSL certificate from Let’s Encrypt, automating certificate renewal, and using our IPv4 to IPv6 HTTP reverse proxy.

Get a Raspberry Pi

First, get yourself a hosted Raspberry Pi server. You can order these from our website, and be up and running in two minutes:

Click on the link to configure your server and you’ll be shown details of your server, and prompted to configure an SSH key:

We use SSH keys rather than passwords. Click on the link, and you’ll be asked to paste in an SSH public key.  If you don’t have an SSH public key, you’ll need to generate one.  On Unix you can use ssh-keygen and on Windows you can use PuTTYgen. Details of exactly how to do this are beyond this guide, but Google will throw up plenty of other guides.

Connect to your server

Once done, you’re ready to SSH to your server. If you’ve got an IPv6 connection, you can connect directly. The Pi used for this walkthrough is called “mywebsite”, so where you see that in these instructions, use whatever name you chose for your server. To SSH directly, connect directly to mywebsite.hostedpi.com. Sadly, the majority of users currently only have IPv4 connectivity, which means you’ll need to use our gateway box. Your server page will give you details of the port you need to connect to. In my case, it’s 5125:

$ ssh -p 5125 root@ssh.mywebsite.hostedpi.com
The authenticity of host '[ssh.mywebsite.hostedpi.com]:5125 ([93.93.134.53]:5125)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:Hf/WDZdAn9n1gpdWQBtjRyd8zykceU1EfqaQmvUGiVY.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '[ssh.mywebsite.hostedpi.com]:5125,[93.93.134.53]:5125' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
Last login: Fri Nov  4 14:49:20 2016 from 2a02:390:748e:3:82cd:6992:3629:2f50
root@raspberrypi:~#

You’re in!

Install a web server

We’re going to use the Apache web server, which you can install with the following commands:

apt-get update
apt-get install apache2

And upload some content:

scp -P 5125 * root@ssh.mywebsite.hostedpi.com:/var/www/html/

Now, visit http://www.yourserver.hostedpi.com in your browser, and you should see something like this:

Another computer on the web serving cat pictures!
 

Host your own domain name

Magically, this site on your IPv6-only Raspberry Pi 3 is accessible even to IPv4-only users. To understand how that magic works, we’ll now host a different domain name on the Pi. We going to use the name mywebsite.uid0.com.

First, we need to set up the DNS for this hostname, but rather than pointing it directly at our server, we going to direct it at our IPv4 to IPv6 HTTP proxy, by creating a CNAME to proxy.mythic-beasts.com:

If you’re using a hostname that already has other records, such as a bare domain name that already has MX and NS records, you can use an ANAME pseudo-record.

Our proxy server listens for HTTP and HTTPS requests on both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, and then uses information in the request header to determine which server to direct it to. This allows us to share one IPv4 address between many IPv6-only servers (actually, it’s two IPv4 addresses as we’ve got a pair of proxy servers in different data centres).

We need to tell the proxy server where to send requests for our hostname. To do this, visit the IPv4 to IPv6 Proxy page the control panel.  The endpoint address is the IP address of your server, which you can find on the details page for your server, as shown above.

For the moment, leave PROXY protocol disabled – we’ll explain that shortly.  After adding the proxy configuration, wait a few minutes, and after no more than five, you should be able to access the website using the hostname set above.

Enable HTTPS

We’re firmly of the view that secure connections should be the norm for websites, and now that Let’s Encrypt provide free SSL certificates, there’s really no excuse not to.

We’re going to use the dehydrated client, as it’s packaged for the Debian operating system that Raspbian is based on. Unfortunately, it’s not yet in the standard Raspian distribution, so in order to get it, you’ll need to use the “backports” repository.

To do this, first add the backports package repository to your apt configuration:

echo 'deb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main contrib non-free' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/jessie-backports.list

Then add the keys that these packages are signed with:

apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 7638D0442B90D010
apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 8B48AD6246925553

Now update your local package list, and install dehydrated:

apt-get update
apt-get install dehydrated-apache2

We need to configure dehydrated to tell it which hostnames we want certificates for, which we do by putting the names in /etc/dehydrated/domains.txt:

echo "mywebsite.uid0.com" > /etc/dehydrated/domains.txt

It’s also worth setting the email address in the certificate so that you get an email if the automatic renewal that we’re going to setup fails for any reason, and the certificate is close to expiry:

echo "CONTACT_EMAIL=devnull@example.com" > /etc/dehydrated/conf.d/mail.sh

Now we’re ready to issue a certificate, which we do by running dehydrated -c. This will generate the necessary private key for the server, and then ask Let’s Encrypt to issue a certificate. Let’s Encrypt will issue us with a challenge: a file that we have to put on our website that Let’s Encrypt can then check for. dehydrated automates this all for us:

root@raspberrypi:~# dehydrated -c
# INFO: Using main config file /etc/dehydrated/config
# INFO: Using additional config file /etc/dehydrated/conf.d/mail.sh
Processing mywebsite.uid0.com
 + Signing domains...
 + Generating private key...
 + Generating signing request...
 + Requesting challenge for mywebsite.uid0.com...
 + Responding to challenge for mywebsite.uid0.com...
 + Challenge is valid!
 + Requesting certificate...
 + Checking certificate...
 + Done!
 + Creating fullchain.pem...
 + Done!

We now need to configure Apache for HTTPS hosting, and tell it about our certificates. First, enable the SSL module:

a2enmod ssl

Now add a section for an SSL enabled server running on port 443. You’ll need to amend the certificate paths to match your hostname. You can copy and paste the block below straight into your terminal, or you can edit the 000-default.conf file using your preferred text editor.

cat >> /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf <<EOF
<VirtualHost *:443>
	ServerAdmin webmaster@mywebsite.hostedpi.com
	DocumentRoot /var/www/html

	ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
        CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

        SSLEngine On
        SSLCertificateFile /var/lib/dehydrated/certs/mywebsite.uid0.com/fullchain.pem
        SSLCertificateKeyFile /var/lib/dehydrated/certs/mywebsite.uid0.com/privkey.pem

</VirtualHost>
EOF

Now restart Apache:

systemctl reload apache2

and you should have an HTTPS website running on your Pi:

Automating certificate renewal

Let’s Encrypt certificates are only valid for three months. This isn’t really a problem, because we can easily automate renewal by running dehydrated in a cron job. To do this, we simply create a file in the directory /etc/cron.daily/:

cat > /etc/cron.daily/dehydrated <<EOF
#!/bin/sh

exec /usr/bin/dehydrated -c >/var/log/dehydrated-cron.log 2>&1
EOF
chmod 0755 /etc/cron.daily/dehydrated

dehydrated will check the age of the certificate daily, and if it’s within 30 days of expiry, will request a new one, logging to /var/log/dehydrated-cron.log.

Rotate your log files!

When setting up a log file, it’s always good practice to also set up log rotation, so that it can’t grow indefinitely (failure to do this has cost one of our founders a number of beers due to servers running out of diskspace). To do this, we drop a file into /etc/logrotate.d/:

cat > /etc/logrotate.d/dehydrated <<EOF
/var/log/dehydrated-cron.log
{
        rotate 12
        monthly
        missingok
        notifempty
        delaycompress
        compress
}
EOF

Client IP addresses

If you look at your web server log files, you’ll see one disadvantage of using our proxy to expose your site to the IPv4 world: all requests appear to come from our proxy servers, rather than the actual clients. This is obviously a bit annoying for log file analysis, but is a big problem for any kind of IP-based access controls or rate limiting. Fortunately, there’s a solution, which we’ll look at in the next post.

Managed WordPress

January 23rd, 2017 by

Analogue photo taken with film and real chemistry. Parallax Photographic Cooperative.

WordPress is an excellent content management system that is behind around 25% of all sites on the internet. Our busiest site is Raspberry Pi which is now constructed from multiple different WordPress installations and some custom web applications, stitched together in to one nearly seamless high traffic website.

We’ve taken the knowledge we’ve gained supporting this site and rolled it out as a managed service, allowing you to concentrate on your content, whilst we take care of keep the site up and secure. In addition to 24/7 monitoring, plugin security scans, and our custom security hardening, we’re also able to assist with improving site performance.

We’re now hosting a broad range of sites on this service with the simpler cases start with customers such as Ellexus, who make very impressive technology for IO profiling, and need a reliable, managed platform that they can easily update.

At the other end of the spectrum we have the likes of Parallax Photographic, a co-operative in Brixton who sell photography supplies for people interested in film photography, using real chemistry to develop the photographs and a full analogue feel to the resulting prints. Parallax Photographic use WordPress to host to their online shop, embedding WooCommerce into WordPress to create their fully functional e-commerce site.

Parallax were having performance and management issues with their existing self-managed installation of WordPress. We transferred it for them to our managed WordPress service, in the process adding not only faster hardware but performance improvements to their WordPress stack, custom security hardening, managed backups and 24/7 monitoring. We took one hour for the final switch-over at 9am on a Sunday morning leaving them with a faster and more manageable site. They now have more time to spend fulfilling orders and taking beautiful photographs.

Purrmetrix monitors temperature accurately and inexpensively, and as you can see above with excellent embeddable web analytics. In addition to hosting their website and WooCommerce site for people to place orders, we are also customers (directly, through their website!) using their site to monitor our Raspberry Pi hosting platform. The heatmap (above) is a real-time export from their system. At the time of writing, it shows a 5C temperature difference between the cold and hot aisles across one of our shelves of 108 Pi 3s. The service provides automated alerts; if that graph goes red indicating an over temperature situation alerts start firing. During the prototyping and beta phase for our Raspberry Pi hosting platform, we’ve used their graphing to demonstrate that it takes about six hours from dual fan failure to critical temperature issues. This is long enough to make maintenance straightforward.

Also embedded in our Raspberry Pi hosting platform are multiple Power over Ethernet modules from Pi Supply who make a variety of add-ons for the Raspberry Pi, including some decent high quality audio adapters. With the launch of the Raspberry Pi 3 we had to do some rapid vertical scaling of the Pi Supply managed WooCommerce platform – in thirty seconds we had four times the RAM and double the CPU cores to cope with the additional customer load.

 

We host a wide variety of WordPress sites include Scottish comedy club Mirth of Forth, personalised embroidery for work and leisure wear and our own blog that you’re currently reading. So if you’d like to have us run your WordPress site for you, from a simple blog to a fully managed e-commerce solution or one of the busiest sites on the Web, we’d love to hear from you at sales@mythic-beasts.com.

On the upside, the server room isn’t on fire.

December 8th, 2016 by
This is not the correct way to mix servers and water based fire suppressant.

This is not the correct way to mix servers and water based fire suppressant.

One of our customers does embedded development and have some custom servers in their office as a build platform. This is hardware specific to the embedded designs they’re working on and they can’t locate it in a data centre as they require regular human attention. Unstable development drivers cause crashes and the root flash filesystems need to be re-imaged and replaced.

Recently they’ve moved office and their new office has a ‘server room’, ideal for putting their very expensive custom kit in, and a handful of other machines that they keep locally in the office. While doing the fit out, they noticed that their ‘server room’ is attached to the main sprinkler system. A fire in the building and whilst the bread may be saved from being overly toasted, their expensive hand built development boards are drowned.

They raised this with their landlords who billed them the best part of a thousand pounds to resolve the problem, see the picture on the right.

I’m not sure if it’s the belief that the plastic roof will help, the combustible struts to hold it up or the lack of guttering that really emphasises the mismatch between what a landlord things a server room looks like and what a real data centre actually provides.

We’re in further discussions to see if we can host their custom kit too, because our server room has non computer damaging halon as a fire suppressant and we will return the servers to them unwashed. If your office server room looks like this, please get in touch at sales@mythic-beasts.com.

Notify My Android support for monitoring

December 5th, 2016 by

Great scenery, terrible mobile coverage

Great scenery, terrible mobile coverage


If you’re anything like me, December involves a tour of parents who have retired to far flung corners of the land and who are now living in houses with perfectly serviceable wifi but absolutely no mobile phone coverage. This creates a problem if you’re supposed to be listening out for computers that go bleep in the night, as the SMS notifications don’t get through.

To address this, we’ve just implemented Notify My Android support in our monitoring service. As the name suggests, this allows us to push monitoring alerts to your Android phone. It’s pretty easy to set up:

  1. Register for an account with Notify My Android (a free account will allow 5 notifications per day, a one-off payment of $5 will get you unlimited notifications).
  2. Log in, and generate an API key
  3. Download the app on your phone, and log in
  4. Visit our control panel and add an entry to your notification list that looks like nma:API_KEY where API_KEY is the key generated above.

If you use the other kind of phone we have equivalent functionality using Prowl. This works the same, except you put prowl: before your API key.

All of our dedicated and virtual servers include basic ping monitoring as standard. Comprehensive monitoring of other services is available as an add-on, or as standard with any of our managed services.

Backup Upgrade

November 25th, 2016 by
We're using AES rather than 8 rotor enigma encryption.

We’re using AES rather than 8 rotor enigma encryption.

We’ve just completed an upgrade to our backup services. We’ve relocated the London node into Meridian Gate, which means for all London hosted virtual machines your primary backup is now in a different building to your server. We’ve kept our secondary backup service in our Cambridge data centre 60 miles distant.

To further improve, we have taken the opportunity to enable disk-encryption, so that all data stored on the primary backup server is now encrypted at rest providing an additional layer of assurance for our clients and fewer questions to answer on security questionnaires.
We’ve also restricted the number of ssh ciphers allowed to access the backup server to further improve the security of data in transit. We’ve also increased the available space and provided a performance boost in the IO layer so backups and restores will complete more quickly.

Of course we’ve kept some important features from the old backup service such as scanning our managed customers’ backups to make sure they’re up to date and making sure that we alert customers before their backups start failing due to lack of space. Obviously all traffic to and from the backup server is free and it supports both IPv6 and IPv4.

If these are the sort of boring tasks on your todo list and you’d like us to do them for you, please get in touch at sales@mythic-beasts.com.

ANAME records

October 7th, 2016 by
Company policy requires that blog posts have a picture.

Company policy requires that all blog posts have a picture.

We’ve just added support to our control panel and DNS API for “ANAME” records. ANAME records, also known as ALIAS records, aren’t real DNS records, but are a handy way of simulating CNAME records in places where you can’t use a real CNAME.

It works like this:

You’ve got DNS for your domain managed with Mythic Beasts, and you want to host your website with some 3rd party service provider. They’ll tell you to point DNS for your website at their server. You create a CNAME record for www.yourdomain.com and point it at server.3rdparty.com. So far so good.

You also want requests for your bare domain, e.g. http://yourdomain.com to be served by your provider, so you try to create a CNAME for yourdomain.com and get told you can’t. This is because you will already have MX, NS and SOA records for your bare domain, and CNAMEs aren’t allowed to co-exist with other records for the same name.

The usual fall back is to create A or AAAA records that point directly to the IP address of server.3rdparty.com, but this sucks because their IP is now hard coded into your zone, and if they ever want to change the IP of that server they’ve got to try and get all of their customers to update their DNS.

The nice solution would be SRV records, standardised DNS records that allow you to point different protocols at different servers. Unfortunately, they’re not supported for HTTP or HTTPS.

This is where ANAME records come in. You can create an ANAME just like a CNAME, but without the restrictions on co-existing with other records. We resolve the ANAME and substitute the corresponding IP addresses into records into your zone. We then regularly check for any changes, and update your changes accordingly.

Naturally, our ANAME implementation fully supports IPv6: if the hostname you point the ANAME at returns AAAA records, we’ll include those in addition to any A records returned.